Trans-nationalism

Following Oscar Handlin’s ‘The Uprooted’ the discourse and study on immigrants and immigration studies changed. Before it was more of a ‘we’ and ‘them’ mentality but following Handlin’s book and his reflection on immigrants ‘we’ became ‘us’. A social movement of self-identifying as a former immigrant changed the way in which immigration was talked and wrote about, from school education to published works. During the Civil Rights movement and after, people lost sight of the transnational experiences in immigration. Trans-nationalism is a social phenomenon and scholarly research agenda that focuses on the migration of people to America. The immigrant image was being romanticized and changed into a national identity that centered on the United States, not outwardly and other places that also experience immigration. The old image was one that showed the immigrants as hard working people just looking for a place to find freedom and peace, but most importantly they found it within the borders of America. They being a small group of Anglo immigrants and those who could easily conform to the American identity and are instead erased from the narrative. Instead of looking at immigration as a geographical movement it would be best to see it in a legal standing which includes citizenship and civic incorporation. Citizenship because many were denied citizenship based on where they originated from or if they did not fit into the new narrative. They were then shifted into civic incorporation as labor. It is more of a globalization movement because the United States was not the only place people migrated to, then replacing the continental notion of migration only happening from far away. Finally to look at how corporations had effected on immigration and a growing one too.

Worldwide used to be used instead of global or globalization. Global used to refer to the scale of migration phenomenon. Two cases of globalizing migration are from Italy and Canada. The first is how the Italian migrant worker went many more places, sooner, than to America for work. There is evidence of Italian work in Canada and South America. The Canadian Case looks at how with immigration restrictions, Canadians became a top social and economic source for the United States. The Canadian migrant workers would cross borders frequently for work with little to no issue. One thing to note is the difference in migration for French Canadians compared to Anglo Canadians who migrated at a one to three ration favoring Anglo Canadians. French Canadians saw a more chain migration with those already in America going back to require more workers for New England factories. They were also more likely to return to the same place where they migrated to. These two examples show the difference in migration that is not focused on America as the center but instead on the people who migrated globally.

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Ethnicity and Race Nation

The invention of ethnicity was brought on by the American born whites, as a way to distinguish themselves from the ‘other’ or immigrants during a major immigration period to America. This is because it was thought that new immigrants would have an easy and rapid assimilation, based on theory assumptions. These assumptions include the ease in which Anglo-conformity transformed into the Melting Pot aesthetic of assimilation. The new wave of immigration though resisted and opposed this model and did so through language, cultural maintained though some traditional cultures do not remain unchanged. Even when they were born in America or conformed to all what was expected of them they were still not seen as fully American, called instead ‘ethnic Americans’ brought on by the 1960s ethnic movement. The 1960s ethnic movement was a way for a person to identify with a group. Defining ethnicity changes through the years and knowledge on immigrant studies. The first definition by Clifford Geertz and Harold Isaac defined ethnicity by basic group identification and a need for belonging. Others took a different interpretations like Herbert Gans who saw ethnicity as something doomed to fade away in the presence of American assimilation. It was Nathen Glazer and Daniel Moynihan who focus less on the cultural complications and more on common interest. They defined ethnicity as an interest group with means of mobilizing behind certain issues relating to socioeconomic positions. Overall the invention of ethnicity is seen as a cultural construct became people are constantly reinventing themselves in and out of America, no more seen as the passive immigrant but active ones. Post Revolution brought a need for the new nation to invent an identity that was separate from the British and uniquely them. In the 19th century, the invention of ethnicity also brought on the need to make an American identity to hold up to each immigrant and determine how American they were. First immigrants were marked with either positive or negative evaluations but to later they were more likely than not a negative because some Americans felt they were threat to political order. But only some immigrant groups were judged, not all and depending on the time period of immigration. This was easy to do with the availability of immigrant groups already existing.

In recent immigration studies though shows a lack of interest in Latino and Asian immigrants and how they are facing a new set of issues. These issues that they are facing are direct results of a change in immigration laws set by the United States. The 1960s not only brought an ethnic movement but also a shift in immigration in Latino and Asian countries with a rise in female immigrants. Race and  immigration play into each other because immigration studies was so largely focused on white ethnic immigrants for such a long time and how they assimilated into a culture that was already welcoming to them versus those who do not pass as white. Also their only mentions of nonwhite immigrants were forced immigration black slaves and how they were treated. The largest changes were the 1965 Immigration Act that changed the origin locations of immigrants and the emergence, growth, and maturity of scholarship of African American, Latinos and Asian Americans. Showing the importance of race in immigration and a shifting focus from ‘white studies’ on immigration. An example being the way in which Asian immigrants are viewed as not fully American no matter how many generations they go back in America. Also how problematic grouping a large and diverse area into one Asia and their treatment in America because of the relations between their origin countries and America. Most notably the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, followed with Asian Indians in 1917, Japanese in 1929, and Filipinos in 1934, supporting the culture of citizen is given to those who can correctly portray whiteness. Latino, specifically Mexican American, shows the way in which they were almost forgot about because what was needed from them was similar to that of Native Americans. Any act against them was not made until the mid-sixties, who more often than not migrated to other places and were also already in America long before the borders were drawn. Latino’s immigration issues were fairly late and brought on a large change to the ways in which Anglo-Americans viewed immigration and whiteness.

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Women Immigrant

The focus on immigrant women and women studies in general has not been a huge part of immigrant history. Immigrant women in immigrant studies and women’s studies had not been shown until a change existed in 1970s and the 1980s. The history of the family, working classes, respect for human agencies, as workers and labor activist are some of the numerous areas where women’s studies and immigration studies combine and could be examined to better represent the history of immigrant women. But this is not happening, instead they history is being developed in opposing fields. During the early 1970s a popular method of study was to look at the documents of notable women’s lives and contributions. For women’s studies this is great but it leaves out such a large group of marginalized women, like immigrants. At the same time, immigrant studies was moving away from upholding the contributions of immigrants. Or filliopietism which is the glorification of the contributions of great immigrants. Another change in the mid-1970s in women’s studies was the focus on the uniqueness of women apart from men, the opposite of immigrant studies who were looking at the family unit as a community. But some felt this did not fully represent women immigrant studies because a woman’s voice is usually no heard in family units. From these examples and to further the study of immigrant women, the next steps are to look immigrant women in new ways than before. Those outside of the home, if they are tied to a family or community how do they identify themselves there, and to move away from putting western ideas on immigrant women.

An example of this is Irish immigrant women. Unlike most women immigrants who travelled to America, Irish women were unmarried and earning wages sending them back home to devastated farms and families. These women were traveling in equal numbers to men but doing so severely from the male immigrants. The opportunities were different also. They were usually working in others homes at the time but did leaned help to later workers movements. The contribution of these lone women are seen also in religion. It was nuns who played a large role in the creation of social welfare institutions in urban America. These women away from home also helped to influence it though they were no longer there. The wages they sent back went to family farms during famine, churches to fund education, and an exchange of ideas like nationalism.

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Hyphen-Nation

‘The Melting Pot’, Home of the Immigrant’, ‘Land of the Free’, there are a number of ways to refer to America and its history as a nation of immigrants. During the 20th century many were trying to redefine themselves as immigrants and look into their own past for a connection to a place they never knew. While their immigrant parents tried hard to assimilate, as in take on all characteristics of American life and society, it was their children and grandchildren who wanted to know about and reconnect to their past ancestors. This brought on the rise of ethnic definition, multiculturalism, pluralism, and an anti-modernist movement amongst other things.

Starting with the 1960s, then president John F. Kennedy’s ‘return’ to Ireland, home of his forefathers. This was an early high point for the romanticism of ethnicity and heritage. Kennedy’s return to Ireland could be seen as the final assimilation for those watching. His ancestors left Ireland to make a place in America and the return of Kennedy shows they were able to make something of themselves to return triumph. The following trend in later years, of white Americans tracing their ancestors and connecting links between America and their homelands. This was reflected in the literature, movies, and tourism of the time. Most literature of the time about ethnicity was on the ‘white ethnic’ showing a distinguish from other whites and people of color. Films, television shows, and TV movies include The Sopranos, The Godfather, and revivals like Fiddler on the Roof and Zorbra the Greek. Heritage tourism, when people including some celebrities, would go to the ‘homeland’ to look into their past. It was also an advertisement ploy by airlines with tag lines like “All of us came from someplace else” (46). These trips were largely for the personal reasons of self-discovery and less education in learning about the history of the area and culture.

The Civil Rights movement brought out this phenomena. This political movement brought out a way to define whiteness, as the movement and plight of people of color was moved aside. In the past, ethnic European whites were different to American born whites who saw them as white, but not enough. Which is what the grandparents and parents of the ethnic European were trying to accomplish when they reached America because they saw how horrible you were treated for not being white and the reason behind the Civil Rights Movement for people of color. The ethnic whites sought ways to distinguish themselves from their American white counterparts and their crimes in America. They too sought images of oppression, as solidarity towards the Movement, to show that the “nations crimes are not our own” (21) and a separation of the privilege their whiteness did grant their forefathers and does grant them now. Instead of trying to define and distant their whiteness they could have used it in conjunction of the Civil Rights Movement and help the cause. Though it would have been hard because they were not seen as totally white by American whites. The roots movement also stems from the popular book series and later television series ‘Roots’ by author Alex Haley on his families slave history into the present. This work spoke to everyone but not for everyone. Meaning it was felt by all who had come from another place and wanted to look at their families past, but not for everyone because not everyone had a story like Haley’s. It was a narrative on assimilation through the generations.

Finally, through the rise in these heritage hunts and self-discovery tours, was a more public and political response of saving heritage sites. Ellis Island had not been used in decades until then president Lyndon B. Johnson designated the station as part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument in 1965, a state sponsorship and insolvent in ethnic revival. After years of renovation and preservation the island was opened to the public in 1990. The opening of the island was like a shorthand trip for those who could not make it back to their families ‘homeland’ and instead wanted to at least walk where they did in entering the country. The biggest problem for Ellis Island though was what message to send, who’s stories were allowed to be told for the museum was more of a “white man’s museum” and less inclusive for today immigrants. In the end the ethnic revival showed the difference in the white European immigrant, the forced migration of slaves, and the new immigrant for removed from places like Ellis Island. It was a geographical movement versus legal standing, citizenship, and civic incorporation.

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The Uprooted to Transplanted

Rethinking immigration as a village means seeing the village as the country of origin and those who leave it as starting a new life with difficulties. The peasant class in Europe were the leading emigrants from Europe. Emigrant, not immigrants because to emigrate is to still take with you the traditions and customs of your old home to the new one and influence that place. The village is a fixed point and how the peasants identity themselves. It is from this village that the peasants learn of relationships and ties to each other. The rules and obligations of the village may include not being alone because to be alone is to not function within the village. Within the village it is usually better for things to stay the same than change because change means a departure from traditions. Traditions are what uphold the village way and are in place for the peasants to look back on in difficult times. Unless those traditions are not helpful then they will look elsewhere.

Another way to re-imagine emigration is as transplantation. Transplantation is the movement or transfer of someone or something to another place or situation. The relationship between immigrants and capitalism is divided into two groups. One group, the larger of the two works menial jobs while the other smaller group had pursued person gain and leadership. These are the working class and the middle class. The middle class possess relatively more power, places high value on individual freedom, looks for personal gain accompanied by political power and an improved future. Working class immigrants aren’t able to indulge in the same pursuits, whether public or private, for long. The separation of public and private life also is seen in the working class because the focus on the work is so large. The mentality for both groups is a combination of past and present and the attainable and just out of reach.

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The Uprooted to Transplanted

Rethinking immigration as a village means seeing the village as the country of origin and those who leave it as starting a new life with difficulties. The peasant class in Europe were the leading emigrants from Europe. Emigrant, not immigrants because to emigrate is to still take with you the traditions and customs of your old home to the new one and influence that place. The village is a fixed point and how the peasants identity themselves. It is from this village that the peasants learn of relationships and ties to each other. The rules and obligations of the village may include not being alone because to be alone is to not function within the village. Within the village it is usually better for things to stay the same than change because change means a departure from traditions. Traditions are what uphold the village way and are in place for the peasants to look back on in difficult times. Unless those traditions are not helpful then they will look elsewhere.

Another way to re-imagine emigration is as transplantation. Transplantation is the movement or transfer of someone or something to another place or situation. The relationship between immigrants and capitalism is divided into two groups. One group, the larger of the two works menial jobs while the other smaller group had pursued person gain and leadership. These are the working class and the middle class. The middle class possess relatively more power, places high value on individual freedom, looks for personal gain accompanied by political power and an improved future. Working class immigrants aren’t able to indulge in the same pursuits, whether public or private, for long. The separation of public and private life also is seen in the working class because the focus on the work is so large. The mentality for both groups is a combination of past and present and the attainable and just out of reach.

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Military Histories

History writing early on was either military or writing on the monarch to legitimize their reign. The change in which military history is written can be divided into three sections. The first being the old way of writing on military history. These historians only wrote about the battles. They did not focus on the reasons they were fighting but on the formations. A change happened later when historians started to look at the social aspects of war and the technological advances of war and weapons.

The writing on wars changed with the Civil War and the change from looking at soldiers and the formations. The first change was looking at inclusion of those who are not usually talked about in war writing. The first were the black slave soldiers who fought on both sides and how what they were fighting for was different than what the white soldiers were fighting for. The black slave were fighting for their own definition of manhood, “black soldiers not only had to fight to get into the war, they then had to fight to get into the history of the war.” (1073) the stories of race in the army, women in and off the field, and civilian life were starting to emerge as part of the narrative. Another not talked about narrative was the soldiers themselves. Those before the battle, during, and after whether they survived, died, or captured.

Those who wrote for the earlier military history though were already writing further than just the battles that took place. Medieval historians were looking at the technical advances of the time and how those effected the outcomes of battles. Early war historians were also able to write in-depth about the acts of war that happened too. Going in-depth on the memories of war while looking at other sources allowed them to wring fully about the battles from all viewpoints.

Military history today should best be defined as a social history of what brought the war on and how this affected those involved while also looking at the battles themselves. Focusing too much on the battle and campaigns is not bad, but when you forget the people fighting in them and only focus on the movements it makes it harder to understand the war itself.

Military History Old and New

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Journal 6: anaphora

I remember back when

Grandpa used to take us fishing.

He was so full of life.

Our trio sitting in the boat.

Bass basically jumping in

How simple the day had been.

If only the three could be

together again.

Old Reynold is gone.

The third is off in college

and Ryan is just barely

getting into his own.

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Journal 6: I Remember

I remember how you used to like jawbreakers.

I remember how we used to go to McDonald’s

and order fries and sweet tea

as an after school snack.

I remember your eyes and how they sparkled

every time they met mine.

I remember the way you smiled, the way you laughed.

I remember so clearly the way you laughed,

how it infected everyone in the room.

I remember loving you so much that I though my heart

would explode.

I remember wondering how we ended up this way.

I remember thinking we would always be in love

and even after that,

I remember thinking that we would always be friends.

I remember wondering what happened.

I remember wondering where you went.

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302poetry – Global Posts 2017-03-02 12:31:20

Everything is fucked up as usual.

Talk, talk.

Dour faces radiate gloom,

They can see their reflection in the red solo cup.

Wearing loneliness like a bandana,

They perfect naked dances under strobe light.

Shattered expectations mingle with poor grades,

Minds over schooled and under used.

A generation of cheap liquor and missed due dates.

 

Everything is fucked up as usual,

Topics of conversations gone delusional.

Dour faces radiate gloom,

Half filled red solo cups in bloom.

I’m in the kitchen fixing up a remedy,

Lying on the counter dreaming of sobriety.

We perfect naked dances under strobe light,

Our trite ritual sharing our shattered dream-delight.

Minds over schooled and under used,

A stagnant rebellion void of movement brewed.

 

Everything’s fucked up and delusional,

Grades that chain become institutional.

Girl in the black tights,

Wasted somber nights.

Sharing the lonely dark as usual

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